Peripheral Vascular Disease Treatment in Mumbai

What is peripheral vascular disease?

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), is a progressive circulation disorder characterized by the narrowing, blockage, or spasms in blood vessels.

Blood flows from the heart to every organ system in blood vessels known as arteries, while blood travels back to the heart in blood vessels known as veins.

PVD can affect any blood vessel outside of the heart, including arteries and veins, however arteries are more commonly affected, hence it is also known as a peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Insufficient blood flow caused by PAD can impact various organs, but the condition predominantly affects the legs and feet.

peripheral vascular disease

What are the causes of peripheral vascular disease?

Peripheral artery disease is often caused by a buildup of fatty, cholesterol-containing deposits (plaques) on artery walls known as atherosclerosis. Plaque reduces the amount of blood flow to the limbs. It also decreases the oxygen and nutrients available to the tissue. As plaque builds up, your blood vessels get narrower and narrower, until they’re blocked. Blood clots may also form on the artery walls, further decreasing the inner size of the blood vessel and block off major arteries.

Less common causes of peripheral artery disease include:

  • Blood vessel inflammation
  • Injury to the arms or legs
  • Changes in the muscles or ligaments
  • Radiation exposure
  • Infection

People with coronary artery disease (CAD) often also have PVD.

Causes of  peripheral arterial disease
blocked arteries

What are the symptoms of Peripheral arterial diseases?

Many people with PAD have no symptoms. However, some develop a painful ache in their legs when they walk, which usually disappears after a few minutes of rest. The medical term for this is “intermittent claudication”.

The pain can range from mild to severe and usually goes away after a few minutes when you rest your legs.

Both legs are often affected at the same time, although the pain may be worse in 1 leg.

Other symptoms of PAD can include:

  • Hair loss on your legs and feet
  • Numbness or weakness in the legs
  • Brittle, slow-growing toenails
  • Ulcers (open sores) on your feet and legs, which do not heal
  • Changing skin colour on your legs, such as turning paler than usual or blue
  • Shiny skin
  • The muscles in your legs shrinking (wasting)

The symptoms of PAD often develop slowly, over time. If your symptoms develop quickly, or get suddenly worse, it could be a sign of a serious problem requiring immediate treatment.


What are the risk factors for peripheral arterial disease ?

Smoking or having diabetes greatly increases the risk of developing peripheral artery disease.

Other risk factors include:

  • Family history of peripheral artery disease, heart disease or stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Increasing age, especially after 65 (or after 50 if you have risk factors for atherosclerosis)
  • Obesity (a body mass index over 30)
  • High levels of an amino acid called homocysteine, which increase the risk for coronary artery disease

What are the stages of peripheral vascular disease?

Different classification systems can be used to assign a stage to your PAD. The Fontaine stages, which are simpler, are:

I: Asymptomatic (without symptoms).
IIa: Mild claudication (leg pain during exercise).
IIb: Moderate to severe claudication.
III: Ischemic rest pain (pain in your legs when you’re at rest).
IV: Ulcers or gangrene.